Should these fast travel stations still be here?

To be clear, these are the fast travel units that you CAN’T travel to, only from.
Given that you can use your echo to fast travel from anywhere, they seem pointless, especially as all they seem to do is open your echo to the map section, anyways.

I’m guessing they’re a callback to previous games, but surely there’s no real point in having them, is there?

Yeah, as far as I can tell they’re unnecessary. Their presence may indicate that the decision to allow fast travel from anywhere was added at a fairly late stage of development. Or they’re around as a way of telling the player “okay, you’re done here and can leave”, or reminding casual players that they can fast travel (e.g., to turn in a quest) rather than having to retrace their steps.