When inspecting artifacts in Borderlands 3, you can easily see that their actual shape is dictated by their prefix, following this logic:
So a Hot Drop artifact will be pyramid-shaped, a Loot Expander would be cubical and so on.
The appearance of the artifact orbital visual effects is, instead, dictated by the element of the special effect. A Spark Plug will have a blue light ring spinning around it, an Elemental Projector will have this rainbow one:
And so on and so forth.
Well then, how do these attachments affect artifacts?
Do they indicate the secondary stats? The quality of the roll? Something else?